Peyote is a small, spineless cactus, Lophophora williamsii, whose principal active ingredient is the hallucinogen mescaline (3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenethylamine). From the earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by natives in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States as a part of their religious rites.
The top of the cactus above ground–also referred to as the crown–consists of disc-shaped buttons that are cut from the roots and dried. These buttons are generally chewed or soaked in water to produce an intoxicating liquid.
The hallucinogenic dose of 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is about 0.3 to 0.5 grams and lasts about 12 hours. While peyote produced rich visual hallucinations that were important to the native peyote cults, the full spectrum of effects served as a chemically induced model of mental illness. Mescaline can be extracted from peyote or produced synthetically. Both peyote and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenethylamine are listed in the CSA as Schedule I hallucinogens.
Other mescaline-containing cacti such as the San Pedro have a long history of use in South America, from Peru to Ecuador. In traditional peyote preparations34 KB (3,169 words) – 15:09, 27 March 2016
Psychedelic drug (category Articles needing additional references from January 2012)mushrooms” or “shrooms”), mescaline (the active constituent of peyote), and DMT (the active constituent of ayahuasca and an endogenous compound produced in the19 KB (2,223 words) – 19:25, 19 February 2016
Cactus (category Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2012)Americas: peyote, Lophophora williamsii, in North America, and the San Pedro cactus, Echinopsis pachanoi, in South America. Both contain mescaline. L. williamsii95 KB (11,577 words) – 01:21, 15 March 2016
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